U7:Relative clauses

 
 
 


 

A clause is a statement or a question that generally consists of a subject and a verb phrase and constitutes a complete thought. Sentences can consist of a single clause, but they often include two: a main, or independent, clause and a subordinate, or dependent, clause.


Study this PPT
Exercises on "Relative clauses"  Level 3
Extra Information

       Relative clauses (first type)
e.g.
v He’s the guy who got me started running
v She had a company that planned weddings.
v Identifies or gives information about a noun.
Relative clauses (second type)
v He lives down the street, which is very convenient.
v Refers to a whole sentence.
Restrictive Relative clauses(defining)
v Ann is the woman that sits across from me at work.
v Identify which person or thing is being talked about.
Non-Restrictive Relative clauses(Non-defining)
v Ann, who sits across from me at work, used to have her own company.
v They are not used to identify something but just to give extra information about the person or thing being talked about.
Note: We are going to pay attention on defining relative clauses.












Adjective VS. Modifying clause (Relative Clause)


An Adjective is placed before the noun it modifies

modifying clause is placed after the noun it modifies. Either that or which is used with an inanimate noun. That is used informally with a personal noun.
SUBJECT
VERB
MODIFIER
NOUN

SUBJECT
VERB
 NOUN
SUBJECT
Sam
sells
new
 motorbikes

 Sam
sells
Motorbikes
that/which are new.
He
collects
old
 cars

 He
collects
Cars
that/which are antique.
He
prefers
economical
vehicles

 He
prefers
vehicles
that/which are hybrid.







RELATIVE PRONOUN
USE
EXAMPLE
who
subject or object pronoun for people
I told you about the woman who lives next door.
which
subject or object pronoun for animals and things
Do you see the cat which is lying on the roof?





That /Which

THAT AS THE SUBJECT

  THAT AS THE OBJECT
That or which replaces the repeated noun in the modifying clause. The that-clause is placed directly after the noun it modifies. (A modifying clause removes unnecessary words.)

Examples:

The car is economical to drive. The car is small. (noun)
The car is economical to drive. It is small. (pronoun)

That or which replaces the repeated noun in the modifying clause. That is placed at the beginning of the modifying clause and placed directly after the noun it modifies.


Examples:

The car is economical to drive. I want to buy the car.
The car is economical to drive. I want to buy it.
 Subject of Mod CLS



   Object of Mod CLS

The car
    the car is small
  that/which
is more economical to drive

The car
I bought the car
              that/which
Is more economical to drive.
The car
  that/which is small
 is more economical to drive.

The car
 (that/which) I bought
 Is more economical to drive.












Relative pronouns
v Many relative clauses start with a relative pronoun, but not all relative clauses need a relative pronoun.
Ø Who and that are used to refer to people.
Ø Which and that are used to refer to things.
Subject relative clauses
v Ann is an interesting woman who sits across from me. (who refers back to woman, and it is
                                                                                            the subject of the verb sits.)

v Ann had a company that planned weddings. (that refers back to company , and it is the
                                                                           subject of planned.)
v In the subject relative clauses, the relative pronoun is the subject of the verb in the clause.
v In SRCs , who is more common than that to refer to people, and that is more common that which for things.
Object relative clauses
v Charlie is someone (who/that) I can trust. (the use of who/that is optional; they are the object
                                                                      of the verb trust. I is the subject of the verb trust.
v My mother talks about the tings (that) she is doing. (The RP that is optional; it refers back to
                                    things, and it is the object of the verb doing. She is the subject of the RC.
Note: Whom is considered by some people to be the correct relative pronoun in OR clauses about people (e.g., Charlie is someone whom I can trust.). However, in conversation, whom is becoming less common (who I used instead). Whom is mostly used after a preposition in the corpus, over 70 percent of the occurrences of whom are after a preposition. 



Subject Pronoun or Object Pronoun? 
Subject and object pronouns cannot be distinguished by their forms - who, which, that are used for subject and object pronouns. You can, however, distinguish them as follows:
If the relative pronoun is followed by a verb, the relative pronoun is a subject pronoun. Subject pronouns must always be used.
           Sara is a good student.      She sits across from me.

Sara is a good student who sits across from me.
                             subject pronous 


Now, join into a sentences these two sentences:
She has never met the lecturer. The lecture is leading today’s seminar.
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You can say:

They caught the man who / that spied for China.( who / that refer to people)
I lost the map which / that she gave me.( which / that refer to objects)
She complained to the man whose dog bit her. (Whose refers to possession )

Choose the correct relative pronoun (who, which, whose)
1.  This is the bank ______ was robbed the day before yesterday.
2.  The man _______ robbed the bank had a big pistol.
3.  He wore a mask _______ made him look like Mickey Mouse.
4.  The woman _______ gave him the money was an old lady.

Relative pronouns used as the object of defining Relative clauses
Example:
That is the boy. I invited him to the party.
You can say :   That’s the boy (Ø, that, who, whom) I invited to the party.

Now, join into a sentence these two sentences:
That is the house. I’d like to buy the house. (Ø, that, which)
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